Saturday, March 14, 2020
Hysteron Proteron s of the Figure of Speech A figure of speech in which the natural or conventional order of words, actions, or ideas is reversed. Hysteron proteron is generally regarded as a type of hyperbaton. The figure of hysteron proteron has also been called inverted order or putting the cart before the horse.Ã Eighteenth-century lexicographer Nathan Bailey defined the figure as a preposterous way of speaking, putting that first which should be last.Ã Hysteron proteron most often involves inverted syntaxÃ and is used primarily for emphasis. However, the term has also been applied to inversions of narrativeÃ events in nonlinear plots: that is, what happens earlier in time is presented later in the text.Ã Etymology From the Greek hysterosÃ andÃ proteros , latter first Examples and Observations He began to walk barefoot across the meadow, but the sharp dry grass hurt his feet. He sat down to put on his shoes and socks.(Iris Murdoch, Nuns and Soldiers, 1980)That time of year thou mayst in me beholdWhen yellow leaves, or none, or few do hang ...(William Shakespeare, Sonnet 73)Muammar Gaddafi Killed, Captured In Sirte(Headline in Huffington Post, Oct. 20, 2011)Im going to kill that magician. Ill dismember him and then Ill sue him.(Woody Allen, Oedipus Wrecks in New York Stories, 1989) Yoda-Speak One of the most common and effective forms of hyperbaton isÃ hysteron proteronÃ (roughly, last things first). LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take two examples from a master of the technique: Powerful you have become. The Dark Side I sense in you and Patience you must have, my young padawan. For Yoda inÃ Star Wars, hysteron proteron is a linguistic trademark. The key concepts in those three sentences are power, the Dark Side and patience. Their placement underlines them. Ã (Sam Leith, Much to Learn From Yoda, Public Speakers Still Have. Financial Times [UK], June 10, 2015) Hysteron Proteron in Don DeLillos Cosmopolis (2003) So attuned is [Eric] Packer to the future that he repeatedly literalizes the rhetorical trope known as hysteron proteron; that is, as he scans the several digital monitors mounted in his limousine, he experiences an effect before its cause. Among Packers premonitions is observing himself onscreen recoiling in shock from the Nasdaq bombing before the actual blast occurs. Ã (Joseph M. Conte, Writing Amid the Ruins: 9/11 and Cosmopolis. The Cambridge Companion to Don DeLillo, ed. by John N. Duvall. Cambridge University Press, 2008) Puttenham on Hysteron Proteron (16th century) Ye have another manner of disordered speech, when ye misplace your words or clauses, and set that before which should be behind. We call it in English proverb, the cart before the horse, the Greeks call it Histeron proteron, we name it the Preposterous, and if be not too much used is tolerable enough, and many times scarce perceivable, unless the sense be thereby made very absurd. Ã (George Puttenham, The Arte of English Poesie, 1589) Hysteron Proteron in Rhetoric and in Logic Hysteron proteron was thus a term from the discourse of rhetoric for a reversion that reversed the order of things themselves, including in both temporal and logical sequence. In this sense, it appeared across a broad range of early-modern writing, as both a blemish and an exploited license of order and style...In the field of formal logic, hysteron proteron simultaneously denoted a preposterous inversion, in this case the logical fallacy of assuming as true and using as a premise a proposition that is yet to be proved, or the proving of a proposition by reference to another one that presupposes it.(Patricia Parker, Hysteron Proteron: Or the Presposterous, in Renaissance Figures of Speech, ed. by Sylvia Adamson, et al., Cambridge University Press, 2007) Pronunciation: HIST-eh-ron PROT-eh-ron
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Critical review of a textbook - Essay Example Human beings are singular and unique hence their choices also boil down to personal preferences. Essentially, the authors make an assumption that every person is a sexual being and it forms an integral part of every person either consciously or unconsciously. According to (Myerson 2007), the basis of human sexuality is the gender of person. The way a person chooses to experience and express their sexuality is also dependent on social factors on top of their biological nature. Thus, the authors agree that sexuality is an individual decision and it can not be forced on a person. It is also evident that human sexuality is self discovery process which and people define their sexuality at different times in their lives. (Rathus et al 2005) note that gender roles in some cultures dictate the ways in which males and females are expected to behave. However, the authors agree that these roles are not necessary right and individuals have the freedom to decide their sexuality even if it may con flict with the expectations of the society. Rathus et al (2005) stated that the society prescribes gender roles and gender identities based purely on the sex of the person. This implies that one is assigned social roles and stereotypes based purely on their biological sex. In this regard boys and girls are treated in a different ways. For instance, the authors point out that gender typing begins from the naming of children. Girls are inclined to engage in motherhood roles only while boys play masculine roles. The effect of this is a person grows in a predefined gender identity based on their biological make up. However, it should be noted that gender identity and roles transcend the confines of biological make up in terms of X and Y chromosomes. (McDonald p.45) argues that although sex is predefined by the biological composition of chromosomes in a person, gender is not necessarily imposed on a person. Gender typing can be biased if it is only based on the biological aspects of a pe rson. Gender identity can either be due to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived or actual sex. Therefore, it is possible for sexism to arise if the issue of gender is imposed on people based only on their sex disregarding other factors that can shape the sexuality of a person. In fact, the authors point out that the traditional gender stereotyping based only on the sex of an individual may leave out the transsexualism, intersexualism, and hermophroditism. This implies that gender typing leaves out the people who transgress from the traditional gender brackets that are narrowly defined by the biologically. Rathus et al point that there is cross-cultural evidence on gender typing based on long held gender stereotypes. Children are socialized to behave in gender defined roles and they differentially prepared for adulthood. As noted by (Simoni 2000), some parents impose gender roles by rewarding gender Ã¢â¬âtypical roles in children and punishing behavior that is inconsistent with the predefi ned gender roles. Further examination of Human Sexuality in a World of Diversity indicates that the authors are inclined towards a liberal position in relation to gender identity and gender roles. This calls into question the traditional views of masculinity and femininity which need to be reconstructed in order to be reflective of individual perspectives (Phillips 457). According to the book, sexual orientation is the direction of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual interests. This can be towards members of the same sex, members of the other sex or both.
Monday, February 10, 2020
Leadership and management - Essay Example For the purpose of analysis, the leadership and management style of TESCO Plc will be critically reviewed in the light of role of leadership in management, the difference between leadership and management, theories and practices of management related to TESCO Plc. TESCO Plc is a multinational superstore in food retailing industry operating in more than 12 countries across world. Strong leadership and management have driven the company to operate successfully in the UK as well as in Europe, Asia and North American Market since 1919 (TESCO Plc, 2014). The nature and style of leadership pursued by TESCO Plc will be discussed below. As a result of operating since 1919 in the UK market, TESCO Plc has encountered various transformational and structural changes from time to time. Such changes largely affects the organizational framework; therefore effective leadership is defined when the leads become successful in efficiently managing resistance to change among all the employees (Grieves, 2010). With the skill and knowledge gained from long experience of working in corporate environment, leaders always tend to formulate strategies and bring required changes in align with the economic condition and industry position. The leaders also identify the potential barriers which may arise in the time of incorporating change process and take initiatives to address such issues well in advance. Experts have recognized certain traits which are inevitable for a leader to manage and control organizational changes. Those traits are attributed in the tabular format. Role of leadership also changes in the various stages of change process. For instance, logical influence is required to be implemented on employees in the planning stage of change process whereas in the introduction and maintenance phase, supportive leadership style should be exercised for minimizing resistance to
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Richardsons Pamela or Viture Rewarded Essay A book can be moral if it raises moral questions even if it doesnt provide moral answers. That is the view of Marilyn Edelstein, associate professor of English at Santa Clara University. Morality is a widespread term used in literature from the early beginnings. The writer uses the moral perspective to discuss the corruption of the society or even the era in which he lives as a whole, to provide moral lessons and help to replace vice with virtue. There are many writers used to present moral lessons through their literary works. For example, Samuel Richardson is one of the most popular and admired writers of his time. RichardsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Pamela is considered the best example to reveal about the moral element in literature. So let us shed lights on the moral element through RichardsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Pamela. Many of the objections to Samuel Richardsons Pamela: or Virtue Rewarded have come about because of its alleged middle-class morality. Samuel Richardson wrote Pamela as an example of the value of moral behavior. Believing in the direct intervention of God, Richardson felt that virtuous actions led to success on earth as well as in heaven. The Novel was praised for its psychological veracity and its moral influence on the readers. Pamela is the symbol of morality in Richardsons Pamela or virtue rewarded. Pamela is a 15 years old servant girl who struggles to keep her virginity. During the past three years, Pamela has been serving the kindly Mrs. B but unfortunately she just died and her son Mr. Squire B takes control of the house hold. He begins to flatter Pamela but she resists all his attempts to seduce her. In letters to her parents Pamela reports her MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts and vows that she will suffer any injury or social penalty rather than sacrifice her chastity. Her parents encourage this devotion to her virtue and advise her to leave Mr. B. Ã¢â¬â¢s employment and return to home and poverty if ever Mr. B. makes a physical attempt on her. In spite of Mr. B. Ã¢â¬â¢s continued harassment, Pamela does not manage to make the departure that she so frequently threatens. Finally, she resolves to go and, having resisted a final effort of Mr. B. to tempt her with money for her parents and marriage to a clergyman, packs her bags to leave. Unfortunately her attempt to escape Mr. Bs harassments fails because she was kidnapped and taken to Lincolnshire estate. As soon as she reaches the estate she planes to escape. Even though Mr. Bs several attempts to rape Pamela of her virtue, she has never stopped fighting back. Pamela is willing to protect her virginity no matter what. Pamela continues writing letters while in captivity, but as she does not know when she will be able to send them, she dispenses with salutations and signatures, so that they run together into one continuous journal. Pamela finds help in the character of Mr. Williams. Mr. Williams fails to deliver Pamelas letters to her family. Mr. B realizes the true self of Pamela through her letters. He admires her character and virtue which eventually led to his proposal to Pamela. Pamelas virtue is finally rewarded through Mr. Bs honest proposal of marriage. Pamelas virtue affected the young Miss Goodwin who is Mr. Bs daughter from a previous affair. Pamela succeeds in establishing the moral character of Miss Goodwin, who does not repeat her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s mistakes. The virtue described in Pamela was of a much broader and more significant scope. Pamelas effort to co-ordinate her human drives and the moral code she had learned represented the real conflict in Pamela. To the extent that her behavior was morally acceptable, she was virtuous. Pamelas ability to do what was right in spite of her own desires was the virtue Richardson intended to reward.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
There are many branches of feministic theorems. As Judith Lorber wrote in her article, The Variety of Feminisms and their Contributions to Gender Equality feminist denominations arose from different views, making many contributions to improve womenÃ¢â¬â¢s status. Lorber discusses the views of, Ã¢â¬Å"gender reform feminisms, gender resistant feminisms, and gender revolution feminismsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (1) etcetera, all which have fought to improve womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Though there are many different aspects of viewing feminism, writer and contributor of owl.purdue.edu, Allen Brizee suggests that the main ideology that holds those aspects together is the oppression of women in general. Though, it is when talking about male dominance, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s resistance, and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s social roles, that the views on feminism changes. In the book, The Awakening, Kate Chopin greatly reveals womenÃ¢â¬â¢s resistance within a male dominated society through her main character Edna Pontellier. Si milarly, in her short, The Story of an Hour, Chopin emphasized the oppression that married women went through with their husbands during the late 1800s. The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman compelled readers, showing how womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles seemed insignificant during the early 1900s. The feminist theory suggested by Brizee can be seen within each of these narratives, and their protagonists. Even to present day, the belief of societies being male-centered still stands. Yet, during the late 1800s and early 1900s, it was clearer that the patriarchal lifestyle was happening. Married women of the era were seen as Ã¢â¬ËpropertyÃ¢â¬â¢ to their husbands. Robert, EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s lover from The Awakening, described her as, Ã¢â¬Å"-not free; you were Mr. PontellierÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help loving youÃ¢â¬ ¦ so long as I went away from y... ... by her difference from male norms and values.Ã¢â¬ Sadly many women became exactly what the male powered societies want them to be, because unconsciously, those societies have influenced them to also believe it is the right thing for them to do. Works Cited Brizee, Allen. "Welcome to the Purdue OWL." Purdue OWL: Literary Theory and Schools of Criticism. Ed. J. Case Tompkins. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. New York: Avon, 1972. Print. Chopin, Kate. The Story of an Hour. Logan, IA: Perfection Learning, 2001. Print. Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. The Yellow Wallpaper. New York: Feminist, 1973. Print. Hall, Donald. Literacy and Cultural Theory. Houghton, Mifflin Co. 2001. 199-213. Lorber, Judith. The Variety of Feminisms and their Contribution to Gender Equality. Roxbury Pub. 1998. 1-15.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
With what success did Wolsey carry through his domestic reforms in the period up to 1529? Wolsey was a fortunate man and with some success carried through the domestic reforms. He usually had the aim to achieve greater power and more control. In this essay I will study how successful Wolsey actually was and why. Wolsey became Lord Chancellor in 1515, which gained him the most important office of the State. He was also at the very centre of government. Living so close to West Minster and the Royal Courts of Justice gave Wolsey the opportunity to parade around and demonstrate the power he had as Henry VIIIÃ¢â¬â¢s chief minister and leading chairman. Wolsey managed to retain the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s favour and was therefore with some success able to carry through his own domestic reforms. He certainly didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want many people influencing the king and so kept and eye on the gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. Henry VIII used the Privy Chamber as Henry VII had done but rather than being alone he liked to be surrounded by gentlemen of his own age. These men were extremely close to the king and could exercise considerable influence. By 1518 Wolsey became concerned by this and so placed his own man, Richard Pace to be gentlemen in audience of the King. After this he seized his chance and expelled many of the minions for bad influence or sent them to do jobs away from the centre of power. Wolsey had managed to keep his power by encouraging the King in his pleasures and therefore had his chance to strike again, this time with the suggestion of reforming the government. Henry interested in this willingly agreed. Wolsey managed to expel the Ã¢â¬ËminionsÃ¢â¬â¢ with such success that he had no need to carry on reforming. This suggests that Wolsey tried to maintain sole influence over the King. I think that because Henry wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a great deal interested, Wolsey had a better chance of success and having had the power to persuade the king also helped him to succeed. In 1526 Wolsey also proposed to reform the royal household, the Eltham Ordinances were introduced. Theses were designed to give Wolsey as much control as possible over those close to the king and reduce the size of the Privy Chamber. Wolsey was successful with this as the amount of people went from 12 down to 6. He managed to remove his chief enemy, William Compton, and replace him with Henry Norris. Wolsey also devised a council attendant on the king but made sure they were always busy elsewhere. Wolsey was successful in reforming the household and this is shown by the things he managed to do. The changes were meant to cut costs but once he had achieved his objectives and removed the people who may influence the king he had no reason to proceed. WolseyÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest impact was in legal reform. In 1516 he put forward a reforming plan which was intended to end the corruption in the legal system and provide cheap and impartial justice. This reform was a success in that he exposed and punished many individuals. He based the centre of his work with the court of the Star Chamber. Wolsey made this court very popular and the evidence to prove this is that it had 120 cases per year, which was 10 times the annual total Henry VII had in his reign. Wolsey was successful as he put the Earl of Northumberland into prison for corruption of the court and in 1517 he sent a royal chancellor, Sir Robert Sheffield, to the tower for being an accessory to a crime. Respect for Wolsey increased because of this, but enemies were also made. A quote from Wolsey to the King shows how successful he was and how much power he did have to exercise. Ã¢â¬ËAnd for your realm, Our Lord be thanked, it was never in such peace or tranquillity: for all this summer I have neither of riot, felony, nor forcible entry, but that your laws be in every place indifferently (fairly) ministered, without leaning in any manner.Ã¢â¬â¢ The letter goes on to say how successful in reforming the laws in the Star Chamber but also that he had some power over the King as he writes how he is going to deal with the two men rather than asking what he should do. He explains that people will understand the new law of the Star Chamber. Wolsey also had some success with the Court of Chancery as he managed to increase the work. Wolsey has been credited with making a major contribution to English law through his decisions, which created precedents. He managed to establish a permanent judical committee dealing with cases brought by the poor, who he favoured, which created enemies of richer people. Wolsey wanted to see courts available for the poor and weak, since they stood little chance against the rich and strong in common law courts where large sums of money was required to succeed. Yet within these courts many honest people were put on trial. A contemporary source, the Chronicle of Edward Hall dated 1526 explains how Wolsey letting the poor people have a court led to innocent people being punished. Ã¢â¬ËThe poor people perceived that he punished the rich, then they complained without number, and brought many an honest man to trouble and vexation.Ã¢â¬â¢ Here I think Wolsey achieved his objectives and also achieved successfully reforming the Court of Chancery. Wolsey managed to reform administration and finance with some success. He built up the Kings affinity in each locality by appointing the kingsÃ¢â¬â¢ servants or his own to key country positions. In local government he gained his Ã¢â¬Ëcentralising driveÃ¢â¬â¢ with some accomplishment as the local officials responded more rapidly and efficiently to royal instructions. Wolsey wanted to have control in every sector and with the reformations he did manage to achieve his objectives with many successes. It is said that Wolsey made an important contribution to Tudor finance. He managed to develop the tax, which is now known as a subsidiary. Wolsey also changed the inadequate fixed rates and yields for a flexible system based on accurate valuations of taxpayers wealth. This proved very successful as people were only paying what they could afford. Wolsey wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t able to manage parliament well, which was probably because of his temperament and the impossibility of winning taxation for wars that had already happened. This domestic policy did create enemies and for this reason it was quite unsuccessful in the early 1520s. Wolsey soon lacked humility and lost some ability of being able to persuade, so economic benefit for the crown was little and people became hostile. Wolsey demanded the Ã¢â¬ËAmicable GrantÃ¢â¬â¢. It was a non-parliamentary tax, but it did not prove successful as he had hoped. It led to rebellion in East Anglia and many other places just refused to pay. This was a huge failure for Wolsey as the rebels won and the Amicable Grant was abandoned. Wolsey was also relatively unsuccessful when he tried to change the law about enclosures. He saw them as a Ã¢â¬Ëmoral evilÃ¢â¬â¢ as many Tudor commentators had done. Unfortunately Wolsey saw the enclosures as the landowners being greedy and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see them as a long term economic change that was producing inflation. Yet he did still try to be an economic reformer. A letter to Wolsey from the Bishop of Lincoln in September 1528 explains how badly villages have been affected for the worst by the enclosures. Ã¢â¬ËYour heart would mourn to see the towns, villages, hamlets, manor places, in ruin and decay, the people gone, the ploughs laid down, the living of many honest husbandmen in one mans hand, ht common in many places taken away from then poor people.Ã¢â¬â¢ The Bishop of Lincoln in the letter also explains how he is supporting the reformation and how the people pray for it. Ã¢â¬ËNever saw people so glad as they are now, hoping the King and Wolsey will see reformation made. They pray for the King and your Grace everywhere.Ã¢â¬â¢ With the enclosures I think Wolsey was seeing only what he wanted to see and since he favoured poor people only saw in favour of them, this is why this domestic reform was unsuccessful. Although, he did prove himself to be energetic and well intentioned, even if he did fail. Wolsey did come up with other ways to carry through his domestic reforms. One of the ways was to reform the church. He was the most powerful churchman in England and so in 1519 he said he was going to reform the clergy. He wanted to improve both church and state when he was dealing with political enemies at court in that year. This plan was not very successful as he made plans but nothing really became of them. There were great demands for reforming clerical life and Wolsey knew this, he also knew that the privileged status of the clergy was resented. Wolsey wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t terribly successful in reforming the church and he said that he may not have paid enough attention to it. He said, Ã¢â¬ËIf I had served God as diligently as I have done the KingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ This suggests that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay enough attention it, as he would have liked. However, he did pave the way for what happened in the 1530s, as he was involved in all aspects of the church. Churchmen became used to orders and enquiries from the crown, but the disadvantages of this was that their independence was reduced and therefore it became harder to re assert in time of a crisis. In conclusion, Wolsey did carry through some of his domestic reforms with some success. The only reason some of them werenÃ¢â¬â¢t successful is because of how he reacted in certain situations, for example the enclosures. Wolsey was a very powerful man and knew how to persuade the King, and this was usually how he achieved success, the people that got in the way were his enemies. Even though he did have some failures he did carry on, but usually for his own interest, to gain full power. In certain ways he did improve things for others, he especially tried to improve things for the poor. I think this is because he used to be poor himself and so wanted to make a better life for others. Overall Wolsey did carry through domestic policies with some success, even if he was trying to fulfil his own objectives.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The history of the prison system in the US is very extensive and encompasses nine different eras which include the Penitentiary era, Mass Prison, Reformatory, Industrial, Punitive, Treatment, Community-based, Warehousing, and the Just-desert era. Each era had its own strength and weaknesses that influenced each subsequent era that came after. the idea of a prison system came about from the colonist desire for a more humane method of dealing with criminal offenders. It was a key move away from corporal and capital punishment to confinement and reform. The Penitentiary era started in 1790 and lasted until 1825. It was the first period in the United States prison history that witnessed the creation of 30 state prisons modeled after the penitentiary constructed in Auburn, New York(Ortmeier). In 1790, the Quakers first developed the concept of the prison system where offenders would be reformed through solitary confinement and the study of religious writings. 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